242 references, last updated Tue Jun 16 13:28:10 MET 1998

[ABELSON, 1985]
G.J. ABELSON, H. SUSSMAN. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma., 1985.

[Acker, 1995]
Stephen R. Acker. Space, collaboration, and the credible city: Academic work in the virtual university. The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1(1), 1995. http://cwis.usc.edu/dept/annenberg/vol1/issue1/acker/ACKTEXT.HTM.

[Ackermann and Palen, 1996]
Mark S. Ackermann and Leysia Palen. The zephyr help instance: Promoting ongoing activity in a cscw system. In appeared in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94), 1996. URL: http://www.ics.uci.edu/%7Eackerman/docs/chi96/zephyr.chi96.html.

[Ackermann, 1994a]
Edith Ackermann. Direct and mediated experience: Their role in learning. In R. LEWIS and P. MENDELSOHN, editors, Lessons from Learning. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994.

[Ackermann, 1994b]
Mark S. Ackermann. Augmenting the organizational memory: A field study of answer garden. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94), pages 243–252, 1994. URL: http://www.ics.uci.edu/%7Eackerman/docs/cscw94/cscw94.html.

[Ackermann, 1996]
Mark S. Ackermann. Answer garden 2: Merging organizational memory with collaborative help. In roceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'96), pages 97–105, 1996. URL: http://www.ics.uci.edu/%7Eackerman/docs/cscw96.ag2/cscw96.ag2.html.

[Ames et al., 1996a]
Andrea L. Ames, David R. Nadeau, and John L. Moreland. The VRML 2.0 Sourcebook. Wiley, New York, 1996. URL: http://www.wiley.com/compbooks/catalog/07/16507-7.html (source code and ordering information).

[Ames et al., 1996b]
Andrea L. Ames, David R. Nadeau, and John L. Moreland. The VRML Sourcebook. Wiley, New York, 1996. URL: http://www.wiley.com/Compbooks/vrmlsrbk/cover/cover.html (source code and ordering information).

[Anderson et al., 1996]
David Anderson, Dan Greening, Moses Ma, Maclen Marvit, and Richard Waters. Open community overview. on-line, November 1996. URL: http://www.merl.com/opencom/opencom-overview.htm.
The ultimate goal of VRML and cyberspace advocates is to create a seamless distributed multiuser virtual environment that connects all the 3D worlds on the Internet. VRML 1.0 and 2.0 have brought us closer to this dream, but have not crossed the bridge to multiuser experiences. The open Open Community Java/VRML 2.0 API developed jointly by Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs, Chaco Communications, Inc., Velocity Games, and Worlds, Inc., provides a complete distributed multiuser communication infrastructure for complex virtual worlds. It provides for both passive and interacting behaviors. A passive behavior is isolated, such as an avatar waving, where a interacting behavior involves two objects, such as two avatars shaking hands. The architecture allows different virtual worlds to connect to each other through ``regions.'' While the Open Community API does not specify communication protocols, our reference implementation uses peer-to-peer communication to improve speed and scaleability. To create the complete cyberspace dream, where a baseball player can hit a ball from one manufacturer's server into another's and smash a company's window, we must specify an open networking protocol.

[Aronson and Briggs, 1983]
Dennis T. Aronson and Leslie J. Briggs. Contributions of Gagné and Briggs to a prescriptive model of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth, editor, Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status. Prentice-Hall, Hillsdale, NJ, 1983.

[Bakun, 1995]
Andy Bakun. Moo programming tutorials. Posted to *Teaching on (now defunct) WorldMOO, 1995. Copis are included in URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/moo/book2/tm2.html.

[Barnes, 1994]
Sue Barnes. Hypertext literacy. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(4):24–36, 1994. http://www.c2.org/%7Eandreww/javascript/.

[Bartle, 1990]
Richard Bartle. Interactive multi-user computer games. MUSE Ltd, Report for the British Telecom, December 1990. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/mudreport.ps (416K PS), also: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/mudreport (350K text).

[Benedikt, 1991]
Michael (ed.) Benedikt. Cyberspace: First Steps. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991.

[Benford et al., 1997a]
Steve Benford, Chris Greenhalgh, and David Lloyd. Crowded collaborative virtual environments. In ACM CHI, 1997. URL: http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/crg/Research/crgshare/papers/.

[Benford et al., 1997b]
Steve Benford, Chris Greenhalgh, and David Lloyd. Staging a public poetry performance in a collaborative virtual environment. Internal Report, Department of Computer Science, The University of Nottingham, 1997. URL: http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/crg/Research/crgshare/papers/.

[Bennahum, 1994]
David Bennahum. Fly me to the MOO: Adventures in textual reality. Lingua Franca, 1:35–44, 1994.

[Bennet, 1994]
Cathy Bennet. Diversity university grant center. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):52, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Cathy) Libnm1@nccvax.wvnet.edu.

[Billinghurst et al., 1996]
Mark Billinghurst, Sisinio Baldis, Edward Miller, and Suzanne Weghorst. Shared space: Collaborative information spaces. Technical Report p-96-5, HITLab, 1996. URL: http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/p-96-5/, project page: http://www.hitl.washington.edu/projects/shared_space/.
Shared Space is an interface concept for intuitive three dimensional computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) which combines Augmented Reality (see-through Virtual Reality) techniques with traditional CSCW principles. Shared Space allows users to see each other at the same time as three dimensional virtual images superimposed on the real world. This facilitates a high bandwidth of communication between users as well as intuitive 3D manipulation of the virtual images. We present an application of the Shared Space concept that demonstrates collaborative web browsing and personal information spaces.

[Bilotta et al., 1995]
Eleonara Bilotta, Mariano Fiorito, Dario Iovane, and Pietro Pantano. An educational environment using WWW. In On-Line Proceedings of the Third International WWW Conference '95, Darmstadt, April 1995. URL: http://www.igd.fhg.de/www/www95/papers/97/EduEnv.html.

[Bishop, 1997]
Judy Bishop. Java Gently, Programming Principles Explained. Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1997. URL: http://www.cs.up.ac.za/javagently.

[Bourbion, 1996]
M. Bourbion. Le choix LOGO. Armand Colin, Paris, 1996.

[Broll, 1997a]
Wolfgang Broll. Distributed virtual reality for everyone -a framework for networked vr on the internet. In Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium 1997 (VRAIS'97), pages 121–128, Las Alamitos, CA, March 1997. IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Computer Society Press. URL: http://orgwis.gmd.de/projects/VR/vrml/.

[Broll, 1997b]
Wolfgang Broll. Populating the internet: Supporting multiple users and shared applications with vrml. In Proceedings of the VRML'97 Symposium,, pages 87–94. ACM SIGGRAPH, ACM, 1997. URL: http://orgwis.gmd.de/projects/VR/vrml/.

[Brown et al., 1989]
J.S. Brown, A Collins, and P. Duguid. Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18:32–42, 1989.

[Bruckman and Resnick, 1993]
Amy Bruckman and Mitchel Resnick. Virtual professional community: Results from the MediaMOO project. In Third Internation Conference on Cyberspace, Austin, Texas, May 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/mediamoo-3cyberconf.ps.

[Bruckman, 1992]
Amy Bruckman. Identity workshop: Emergent social and psychological phenomena in text-based virtual reality. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/identity-workshop.ps, April 1992.

[Bruckman, 1993a]
Amy Bruckman. Gender swapping on the Internet. In INET '93, 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/gender-swapping.ps.

[Bruckman, 1993b]
Amy Bruckman. Programming for fun: MUDs as a context for collaborative learning. MIT Media Lab, working paper, 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/necc94.ps.

[Bruckman, 1994]
Amy Bruckman. Moose Crossing PhD Thesis Proposal. URL: http://asb.www.media.mit.edu/people/asb/, also at http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/moose-crossing-proposal.ps (410K PS), and: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/moose-crossing-proposal, 1994.

[Brusilovsky, 1995]
Peter Brusilovsky. Intelligent tutoring systems for world-wide web. In WWW'95 Posters and Demonstrations, Darmstadt, April 1995. URL: http://www.igd.fhg.de/www/www95/posters/48/index.html.

[Brutzman, 1998]
Don Brutzman. The virtual reality modeling language and java. Communications of the ACM, (to appear), 1998. URL: http://www.stl.nps.navy.mil/ brutzman/vrml/vrmljava.pdf.

[BUSH, 1994]
Vannevar BUSH. As we may think. The Atlantic Monthly, July 1994. http://www.csi.uottawa.ca/%7Edduchier/misc/vbush/as-we-may-think.html.

[Butts et al., 1994]
Carter Butts, Colman Reilly, Marcus Speh, and Joseph Wang. WWW and the Globewide Network Academy. In Proceedings of the First International WWW Conference, 1994. URL: http://uu-gna.mit.edu:8001/uu-gna/admin/papers/www/index.html.

[Byrne, 1996]
Christine Byrne. Water on Tap: The Use of Virtual Reality as an Educational Tool. PhD thesis, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Washington, 1996. URL: http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/dissertations/Byrne/.

[Campbell and Epstein, 1994]
Jay Campbell and Latt Epstein, Samuel. WOO transaction protocol. Sensemedia Papers, Sensemedia Publishing, 1994. URL: http://sensemedia.net/papers/108.

[Campbell et al., 1995]
J.K. Campbell, Hurley S., S.B. Jones, and N.M. Stephens. Constructing educational courseware using NCSA mosaic and the world wide web. In On-Line Proceedings of the Third International WWW Conference '95, Darmstadt, April 1995. URL: http://www.igd.fhg.de/www/www95/papers/52/www3.html.

[Carey and Bell, 1997]
Rikk Carey and Gavin Bell. The Annotated VRML 2.0 Reference Manual. Addison-Wesley, Reading (MA), 1997. URL: http://www.awl.com/devpress/titles/41974.html.

[Carlstrom, 1992]
Eva-Lise Carlstrom. Better living through language, the communicative implications of a text-only virtual environment, welcome to LambdaMOO! URL: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/communicative (36K text), May 1992.

[Cartwright, 1994]
Glenn F. Cartwright. Virtual or real?: The mind in cyberspace. The Futurist, March-April 1994.

[Cherny, 1994a]
Lynn Cherny. Gender differences in text-based virtual reality. In Proceedings of the Berkeley Conference on Women and Language, April 1994. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/GenderMOO.ps, also: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/gt (Latex).

[Cherny, 1994b]
Lynn Cherny. ``objectifying'' the body in the discourse of an object-oriented mud. URL: http://bhasha.stanford.edu/%7Echerny/body-pca.html, 1994.

[Cherny, 1995a]
Lynn Cherny. The modal complexity of speech events in a social mud. Electronic Journal of Communication, summer, to appear, 1995. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/ejc.txt (txt).

[Cherny, 1995b]
Lynn Cherny. The situated behavior of MUD back channels. URL: http://bhasha.stanford.edu/%7Echerny/aaai.ps, 1995.

[Christensen, 1990]
Bodil Brander Christensen. Teachers and CMC at jutland open university: A case study. In W. Bates, editor, Media and Technology in European Distance Education, Proceedings of the EADTU workshop on Media, Methods and Technology, pages 253–258, Milton Keynes, UK, 1990. EADTU.

[Clark and Brennan, 1991]
H. H. Clark and S. E. Brennan. Grounding in communication. In L. B. Resnick, J Levine, and S.D Teasley, editors, Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, pages 127–149. American Psychological Association, Washington, 1991.

[Clodius, 1994a]
A. Clodius, Jennifer. Concepts of space and place in a virtual community. University of Wisconsin, 1994. URL: http://tinylondon.ucsd.edu/%7Ejen/space.html.

[Clodius, 1994b]
A. Clodius, Jennifer. Ethnographic fieldwork on the internet. Anthropology Newsletter, 35(9), 1994. http://tinylondon.ucsd.edu/%7Ejen/afa.html.

[Cohen, 1996]
Isaac Cohen. CGI/Perl et Javascript. Eyrolles, Paris, 1996.

[Collins and Brown, 1988]
A Collins and J.S. Brown. The computer as a tool for learning through reflection. In H. Mandl and A. Lesgold, editors, Learning Issues for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pages 1–18. Springer Verlag, New York, 1988.

[Curtis and Nichols, 1993]
Pavel Curtis and David Nichols. MUDs grow up: Social virtual reality in the real world. In Third International Conference on Cyberspace, Austin, Texas, May 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/MUDsGrowUp.ps, also: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/mudsgrowup.

[Curtis, 1992]
Pavel Curtis. Mudding: Social phenomena in text-based virtual realities. URL:http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/DIAC92.ps, also: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/pavel.html, 1992.

[Curtis, 1993]
Pavel Curtis. LambdaMOO programmer's manual. Xerox Parc, 1993.

[Cutler, 1995]
H. Cutler, Richard. Distributed presence and community in cyberspace. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 3(2):12–32, 1995. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/CUTLER.3N2.

[Danford, 1994]
R. Danford, Thomas. Teaching microbiology at diversity university. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):6–7, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Danford) facrept@nccvax.wvnet.edu.

[De La Vega et al., 1995]
Francisco M De La Vega, Robert Giegerich, and Georg Fuellen. Distance education through the internet: The gna-vsns biocomputing course. WWW VSNS BioComputing Division, Octoboer 1995. URL: http://www.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/bcd/welcome.html.

[December and Randall, 1995]
John December and Neil Randall. The World Wide Web Unleashed. Macmillan, 1995.

[Denison, 1995]
D.C. Denison. When worlds collide: Part i, MUDs, MOOs, and MUSHes get webbed. GNN Network News, 1995. http://gnn.com/gnn/news/feature/WOO.html.

[Dever and Love, 1995]
Paul Dever and Jane Love. The real pleasure of the virtual. In Eleventh Annual Computers and Writing Conference, El Paso, 1995. http://www.ucet.ufl.edu/writing/research/elpaso/elp.html.

[Dibbell, 1993]
Julian Dibbell. Rape in cyberspace. URL: http://www.panix.com/%7Ejulian/writing/bungle.html, December 23 1993.

[Dieberger and Tromp, 1993]
Andreas Dieberger and J.G. Tromp. The information city project - a virtual reality user interface for navigation in information systems. In Proc. of the Symposium Virtual Reality, Vienna, Dec 1993. URL: http://www.gatech.edu/lcc/idt/Faculty/andreas_dieberger/A.Dieberger.home.html also at: http://www.cms.dmu.ac.uk/General/vr/VRPapers/infocity.txt.

[Dieberger, 1994a]
Andreas Dieberger. On Navigation in Textual Virtual Environments and Hypertext. PhD thesis, Vienna Universtiy of Technology, 1994.

[Dieberger, 1994b]
Andreas Dieberger. Spatial environments to organize and navigate information and to communicate about this organization. In Position Paper for the Workshop at the European Conference on Hypermedia Technology, Edinburgh, September 1994. URL: htmladdnormallink http://www.gatech.edu/lcc/idt/Faculty/andreas_dieberger/A.Dieberger.home.html http://www.gatech.edu/lcc/idt/Faculty/andreas_dieberger/A.Dieberger.home.html. also at: http://www.cms.dmu.ac.uk/General/vr/VRPapers/tromp-qnr.txt.

[Dillenbourg and Baker, 1996]
Pierre Dillenbourg and Michael Baker. Negotiation spaces in human-computer collaborative learning. submitted, 1996. URL: missing (todo).

[Dillenbourg et al., 1996]
Pierre Dillenbourg, David R. Traum, and Daniel K. Schneider. Grounding in multi-modal task-oriented collaboration. submitted to the EuroAI&Education 96 conference, 1996. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/tecfa-research/cscps/euroaied/murder-1.html.

[Dillenburg and Schneider, 1995]
Pierre Dillenburg and Daniel K. Schneider. Collaborative learning and the internet. In Paper presented to ICCAI 95, 1995. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/tecfa-research/CMC/colla/iccai95_1.html.

[Doheny-Farina, 1995]
Stephen Doheny-Farina. Representation(s) and a sense of self: The subtle abstractions of MOO talk. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine, 2(5), May 1995. URL: http://sunsite.unc.edu/cmc/mag/1995/may/last.html.

[Donald, 1994a]
Donald. Education MOOs. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):53–60, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Donald) idd@io.org.

[Donald, 1994b]
Donald. Towards ordinary teaching at diversity university. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):8–16, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Donald) idd@io.org.

[Dworschak, 1994]
Manfred Dworschak. Anwesend: Maggie messer. ausgaenge: Westen, sueden. Die Weltwoche, 47(24), November 1994.

[Eisenstadt et al., 1995]
Marc Eisenstadt, Mike Brayshaw, Tony Hasemar, and Kim Issroff. Teaching, learning, and collaborating at a virtual summer school. Technical report, Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, 1995.

[Endter, 1996]
Ingeborg Endter. Is there a great good place for kids on the internet? Paper for ``Virtual Communities on the Internet'' Harvard University Extension School CSCI E10, May 1996. URL: http://world.std.com/%7Eiendter/final.htm.

[Epstein, 1994]
Latt Epstein, Samuel. ChibaMOO WOO! - About Webbed MOO. Sensemedia Papers, Sensemedia Publishing, 1994. URL: http://sensemedia.net/papers/about.

[Epstein, 1995a]
Latt Epstein, Samuel. MediaWOO, Four slides for MediaMOO's Tuesday Cafe. Sensemedia Papers, Sensemedia Publishing, 1995. URL: http://sensemedia.net/papers/sprawl/33100.

[Epstein, 1995b]
Latt Epstein, Samuel. Webbed object oriented multi user domains. MIPRO '95, also: Sensemedia Papers, Sensemedia Publishing, 1995. URL: http://sensemedia.net/papers/woo.

[Epstein, 1995c]
Samuel Latt Epstein. Collaborative hyperarchical integrated media environments. the Chiba MOO papers. Sensemedia Papers, Sensemedia Publishing, 1995. URL: http://sensemedia.net/papers/chime.

[Evans, 1993]
Scott. G Evans. Building blocks of text-based virtual environments. Undergraduate Thesis, Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, April 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/TechnicalReport.ps.

[Evard, 1993]
Rémy Evard. Collaborative networked communication: MUDs as systems tools. In Proceedings of the Seventh Systems Administration Conference (LISA VII), pages 1–8, Monterey, CA, November 1993. URL: http://www.ccs.neu.edu/USER/remy/documents/cncmast.html, also at: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/Evard.ps.

[Fanderclai, 1995]
Tari Lin Fanderclai. MUDs in education: New environments, new pedagogies. CMC Magazine, 2(1), Jan 1995. URL: http://www.rpi.edu/%7Edecemj/cmc/mag/1995/jan/fanderclai.html, also: URL: http://sensemedia.net/sprawl/16880.

[Farmer et al., 1994]
F. Randall Farmer, Chip Morningstar, and Douglas Crockford. From habitat to global cyberspace. In Proceedings from CompCon '94. IEEE Computer Society, 1994. URL: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/habitat/hab2cybr.txt.

[Farmer, 1993]
F. Randall Farmer. Habitat citizenry. In Carl Eugene Loeffler, editor, Virtual Reality: A Survey of Technology and Culture. Van Nostrand Rheingold, 1993.

[Fleissner, 1995]
Peter Fleissner. Im hyperspace - geschichten aus der neuen welt. URL: http://iguwnext.tuwien.ac.at/MitarbeiterInnen/fleissner/peter.html, 1995.

[Foner, 1993]
Leonard N. Foner. What's an agent, anyway? URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/Agents–Julia.ps, 1993.

[Frentzen, 1995]
Jeffrey Frentzen. MUDs avoid the dirty work of communication. PCWeek Navigator, Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, March 1995. URL: http://www.ziff.com:8002/%7Epcweek/navigator/nav_0313.html.

[Fritzler, 1995]
Karla Fritzler. The internet as an educational tool in esol writing instruction. Master's thesis, San Franciso State University, December 1995. URL: http://thecity.sfsu.edu/%7Efunweb/thesis.htm.

[Gaffin and Heitkoetter, 1994]
A. Gaffin and Joerg Heitkoetter. Big Dummy's Guide to the Internet. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, (available on-line), 1994. URL: http://www.germany.eu.net/books/eegtti/eegtti.html.

[Gagné, 1985]
R.M. Gagné. The Conditions of Learning. Holt Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 4th edition, 1985.

[Gardiner, 1995]
W. Lambert Gardiner. Virtual reality/cyberspace: Challenges to communication studies. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 1(1), 1995? URL (abstract): http://ijvr.uccs.edu/gardiner.htm.
This paper describes the most dramatic development within the new generation of computer-based media currently emerging, that of virtual reality/cyberspace. This discussion presents a number of challenges to the field of communication studies: to deal with the technosphere; to articulate the continuous discontinuity in communication technology; to avoid the threat of the ultimate second reality, and to benefit from the opportunity of the ultimate writing/drawing space.

[Gay and Lentini, 1995]
Geri Gay and Marc Lentini. Use of communication resources in a networked collaborative design environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1(1), 1995. URL: http://cwis.usc.edu/dept/annenberg/vol1/issue1/IMG_JCMC/ResourceUse.html.

[Germundson, 1994]
Noel Germundson. The social and educational aspects of muds (35k). Carleton University Working Papers in Communication Technology and Culture, 1994. URL: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/mud.paper.

[Gibson, 1994]
William Gibson. Neuromancer. Ace, New York, 1994.

[Girardin, 1995]
Luc Girardin. Cyberspace geography visualization. Technical report, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, 1995. URL: http://heiwww.unige.ch/girardin/cgv/report/.

[Gresham, 1994]
John, L. Jr. Gresham. From invisible college to cyberspace college: Computer conferencing and the transformation of informal scholarly communication networks. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(4):37–52, 1994. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/GRESHAM.2N4.

[Guernsey, 1996]
Lisa Guernsey. College ``moos'' foster creativity and collaboration among users. The Chronicle of Higher Education, page A24, February 9 1996. URL: http://www.bvu.edu/informationresources/CHE.html.

[Hafner, 1994]
Katie Hafner. Get in the MOOd. Newsweek, pages 58–62, November 7 1994.

[Hagsand, 1996]
O Hagsand. Interactive multiuser ves in the dive system. IEEE Multimedia Magazin, 3(1), 1996. URL (NOT the arcticle but the system): http://www.sics.se/dive/docs/description.html.
The SICS Distributed Interactive Virtual Environment (DIVE) is an experimental platform for the development of virtual environments, user interfaces and applications based on shared 3D synthetic environments. Dive is especially tuned to multi-user applications, where several networked participants interact over an internet.

[Hall, 1994]
Nina Hall. Academy in the ether. The Times Higher Education Supplement, page xii, September 16 1994. http://uu-gna.mit.edu:8001/uu-gna/documents/papers/thes/nina_hall.html.

[Hand and Skipper, 1995]
Chris Hand and Mark Skipper. TaTTOO'95 online: A virtual trade exhibition. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine, 2(2), February 1995. URL: http://sunsite.unc.edu/cmc/mag/1995/feb/hand.html.

[Hand, 1994]
Chris Hand. Meet me in cyberspace. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine, 1(5), September 1994. URL: http://www.rpi.edu/%7Edecemj/cmc/mag/1994/sep/meetme.html.

[Harasim, ]
Linda Harasim. On-Line Education: A New Domain, chapter Computer-mediated Communication and Distance Education, pages 50–62. Pergamon Press, Oxford, ????

[Hardy, 1993]
Henry Edward Hardy. The future of text based virtual reality. School of Communications, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA, 1993. ftp://montego.umcc.umich.edu/pub/users/seraphim/doc/FutTxVR21.txt.

[Hartman and Wernecke, 1996]
Jed Hartman and Josie Wernecke. The VRML 2.0 Handbook, Building Moving Worlds on the Web. Addison Wesley, Reading (MA), 1996. URL: http://vrml.sgi.com/handbook/index.html.

[Henri, ]
France Henri. Computer conferencing and content analysis. In R. Kaye, Anthony, editor, Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing, pages 117–133, Berlin, ???? Springer-Verlag.

[Henstell, 1993]
Bruce (ed.) Henstell. A seminar in cyberspace. on-line publication, Spring 1993. ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/A-Seminar-in-Cyberspace.

[Hert, 1994]
Carol A. Hert. A learning organization perspective on training: Critical success factors for internet implementation. Internet Research, 4(3):36–44, 1994. URL: http://www.mcb.co.uk/liblink/intr/jourhome.htm.

[Hiltz and Turoff, 1993]
Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Murray Turoff. Social and psychological processes in computerized conferencing. In The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1993.

[Hiltz, 1988]
Starr Roxanne Hiltz. Collaborative learning in a virtual classroom: Highlighs of findings. In ACM Press, editor, CSCW 88, Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pages 282–290, New York, 1988.

[Hiltz, 1993]
Starr Roxanne Hiltz. Correlates of learning in a virtual classroom. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, (39):71–98, 1993.

[Holmevik, 1994]
Jan Rune (ed.) Holmevik. Text-based virtual reality: What is it and how is it being used? conference held at Meridian, October 1994. http://wwwpub.utdallas.edu/%7Ecynthiah/lingua_archive/meridian-moo-seminar.txt.

[Honda et al., 1997]
Yasuaki Honda, Mitra, Bob Rockwell, and Roehl Bernie. Living worlds: Making vrml 2.0 applications interpersonal and interoperable. On-Line Draft, 1997. URL: http://www.livingworlds.com/.
Living Worlds is an initiative to define a conceptual framework and specify a set of interfaces to support the creation and evolution of multi-user (and multi-developer!) applications in VRML 2.0.

[Hughes and Moshell, 1997]
Charles E. Hughes and J. Michael Moshell. Shared virtual worlds for education: The explorenet experiment. ACM Multimedia 1997, 1997. URL: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/%7EExploreNet/papers/VA.Experiment1195.html.
ExploreNet is an experimental environment for creating and delivering networked ``virtual worlds.'' This system's style of user interaction was inspired by the concept of a ``habitat'' as first articulated in the LucasFilm's Habitat system. Players enter and interact in a habitat via their animated alter egos, called ``avatars.'' Habitats may be created for many purposes, including social interaction, entertainment and education. Our focus has been to facilitate the creation of habitats in which virtual communities of learners and mentors interact. This paper presents details of the current ExploreNet system, including its user interface, the means it provides for creating complex behaviors, details of its implementation, the outcomes of several experiments using this system, and our plans for its natural migration to a World Wide Web-based system.

[Hughes, 1995]
Kevin Hughes. From webspace to cyberspace. EIT WWW publications, 1995. URL: http://www.eit.com/%7Ekevinh/cspace/ or http://www.scit.wlv.ac.uk/kevinh/ (UK Mirror).

[Ibrahim and Franklin, 1995]
Bertrand Ibrahim and D. Franklin, Stephen. Advanced educational uses of the world-wide web. In Proceedings of Third World-Wide Web Conference - WWW'95, Darmstadt, Germany, April 10-14, 1995, volume 27, pages 871–877. special issue of Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 1995. URL: http://cuiwww.unige.ch/eao/www/WWW95/paper.html.

[Ito and Ito, 1993]
Mimi Ito and Ito. Living fictions: Extensions of cybernetic presence. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/MIto-2.ps, 1993.

[Ito, 1994]
Mimi Ito. Cybernetic fantasies: Extended selfhood in a virtual community. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/MIto-1.ps, 1994.

[Jacob, 1996]
Karl Jacob. Wider world: Why java and vrml? JavaWorld, 1(1), 1996. URL: http://www.javaworld.com/jw-03-1996/jw-03-javavrml.html.

[John, 1994]
Suzi John. Donut: Starknet campus of the future. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):46–47, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Suzi_j) s_john@sparc3.sparcc.ohio.gov.

[Johnston and Agarwal, 1995]
William E. Johnston and Deborah Agarwal. The virtual laboratory: Using networks to enable widely distributed collaboratory science. A white paper submitted to the NSF vBNS and Networking and Application Researchers workshop, June 1995. URL: http://www-itg.lbl.gov/%7Ejohnston/Virtual.Labs.html.

[Jones, 1994]
Robert Alun Jones. The ethics of research in cyberspace. Internet Research, 4(3):30–35, 1994. URL: http://www.mcb.co.uk/liblink/intr/jourhome.htm.

[Kay and Kummerfeld, 1994a]
Judy Kay and Bob Kummerfeld. Adaptive hypertext for individualized instruction. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, User Modelling '94, Cape Cod, August 1994. URL: http://www.cs.su.oz.au/%7Ebob/adapt_hyper.html.

[Kay and Kummerfeld, 1994b]
Judy Kay and Bob Kummerfeld. Customization and delivery of multimedia information. In Proceedings of MULTICOMM '94, Vancouver, November 1994. URL: http://www.cs.su.oz.au/%7Ebob/CandD.html.

[Kay and Kummerfeld, 1994c]
Judy Kay and Bob Kummerfeld. An individualised course for the c programming language. In Proceedings of the Second International WWW Conference '94 Mosaic and the Web, 1994. URL: http://www.cs.su.oz.au/%7Ebob/kay-kummerfeld.html, also at: http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/IT94/Proceedings/Educ/kummerfeld/kummerfeld.html.

[Kaye, ]
Anthony Kaye. Mindwave, Communication, Computers and Distance Education, chapter Computer-mediated Communication and Distance Education, pages 3–21. Pergamon Press, Oxford, ????

[Kaye, 1990]
Tony Kaye. Building the foundations for an electronic campus. In W. Bates, editor, Media and Technology in European Distance Education, Proceedings of the EADTU workshop on Media, Methods and Technology, pages 227–234, Milton Keynes, UK, 1990. EADTU.

[Kearsley et al., 1993]
G. Kearsley, R. Seidel, and D.K. Park. Theory into practice. a hypertext database for learning and instruction. US Army Research Institute. Note: The Theory Into Practice program (Mac, DOS and Windows versions) is being published by Wadsworth as a book/disk, 1993.

[Kelley, 1994]
Heather J. Kelley. On-line help: Considering the possibilities for facilitating social services through textual worlds. Advanced Communications Technology Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Fall 1994. URL: http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/%7Emoboid/border/socMOOs.html.

[Kimen, 1997]
Shel Kimen. Vrml is- java does- and the eai can help. On-line article at vrml.sgi.com, 1997. URL: http://vrml.sgi.com/features/java/java.html.

[Kindberg, 1996]
Tim Kindberg. WWW: Departement of computer science, University of London, also Proceedings of The International Workshop on CSCW and the Web, 1996. URL: http://www.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/%7Etimk/Mushroom/CSCWWeb.html.

Barry Kort. MicroMuse at MIT. On-line gopher publication, Educational Technology Research, BBN Labs, Cambridge, MA. http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/0/testbed/muse/MicroMuse_at_MIT.

Barry Kort. The MUSE as an educational medium. On-line gopher publication, Educational Technology Research, BBN Labs, Cambridge, MA. http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/0/testbed/muse/The_MUSE_as_educational_medium.

Barry Kort. Virtual realities, virtual communities, and informal science education. On-line gopher publication, Educational Technology Research, BBN Labs, Cambridge, MA. http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/0/testbed/muse/Virtual.Communities.

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Myron W. Krueger. Artificial Reality II. Addison-Wesley, 1991.

[Lambert, 1994]
TyAnna Lambert. Computer-based pedagogy: An answer to postmodern frenzy. Edited log of a CW94:Forum session which took place at MediaMOO's Netoric Complex, CW94:Forum, the online component of the tenth annual Computers and Writing Conference, hosted by the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA in May, 1994., May 1994. http://www.missouri.edu/%7Ecccc95/moologs/lambert.html.

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Leslie Lamport. LaTeX User's Guide & Reference Manual. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1986. Online information on TeX and LaTeX is available at htmladdnormallink http://curia.ucc.ie/info/TeX/menu.html http://curia.ucc.ie/info/TeX/menu.html and htmladdnormallink http://es-sun2.fernuni-hagen.de/info2html?(latex.info)Top http://es-sun2.fernuni-hagen.de/info2html?(latex.info)Top.

[Laurel, 1995a]
Brenda Laurel. Computers as Theatre. Addison-Wesley, 1995.

[Laurel, 1995b]
Brenda Laurel. Vr will transform computers into extensions of our whole bodies. Scientific American, 1995. URL: http://www.design-inst.nl/DOME/Texts_in_DOME/Laureltxt.html.

[Lea et al., 1996]
Rodger Lea, Kouichi Matsuda, and Ken Miyashita. Java for 3D and VRML Worlds. New Riders, Indianapolis, 1996. URL: http://www.mcp.com/newriders/books/1-56205-689-1.html.

[Lea et al., 1998]
Rodger Lea, Yasuaki Honda, and Kouichi Matsuda. Virtual society: Collaboration in 3d spaces on the internet. CSCW (forthcoming issue on CSCW and the WWW, 1998. URL: http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/rodger/CSCW/cscw.html.
The Virtual Society (VS) project is a long term research initiative that is investigating the evolution of the future electronic society. Our vision for this electronic society is a shared 3D virtual world where users, from homes and offices, can explore, interact and work. Our first implementation of an infrastructure to support our investigation is known as Community Place and has been developed to support large-scale shared 3D spaces on the Internet using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Obviously, such an ambitious project cuts across many different domains. In this paper we outline the goals of the Virtual Society project, discuss the architecture and implementation of CommunityPlace with particular emphasis on Internet related technologies such as VRML and discuss our view on the role of VRML and the Internet to support large-scale shared 3D spaces.

[LESLIE, 1993]
Jaques LESLIE. MUDroom. Atlantic, pages 28–34, September 1993.

[Loeffler, 1993]
Carl E. Loeffler. Distributed virtual reality: Applications for education, entertainment and industry. STUDIO for Creative Inquiry, Carnegie Mellon University (found on a Norvegian WWW server), 1993. URL: http://www.nta.no/telektronikk/4.93.dir/Loeffler_C_E.html.

[Ma et al., 1996]
Moses Ma, Dan Greening, Maclen Marvit, and Abbott Brush. An overview of universal avatars. on-line, 1996. URL: http://www.chaco.com/avatar/avatar.html.
This paper proposes an extension to the emerging VRML standard, to specify avatar descriptions (i.e., user representations). Avatar standardization is critical for the growth of the virtual world industry. As virtual worlds become widely deployed, users will want to move from one virtual world to another, carrying their physical attributes, belongings, mood, behaviors and preferences with them in one universally recognized format. Virtual world content providers will market to those avatars, and so buying patterns, monetary exchange, security, and authentication must be maintained in the avatar. In addition these benefits, using standardized avatars can help in using Internet search engines for avatars and avatar properties. Finally, avatar companies have become common–they can price their avatars at a lower cost, make them available to more people and guarantee broader applicability, if there is a universal avatar format.

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John Mallery. A common LISP hypermedia server,. In Proceedings of The First International Conference on The World-Wide Web, 1994. http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/iiip/doc/cl-http/server.html.

[Marrin, 1996]
Chris Marrin. Anatomy of a vrml browser. on-line publication, August 1996. URL: http://www.marrin.com/vrml/Interface.html.

[Marvin, 1995]
Lee-Ellen Marvin. Spoof, spam, lurk and lag: the aesthetics of text-based virtual realities. The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1(2), 1995. http://shum.huji.ac.il/jcmc/vol1/issue2/marvin.html.

[Masinter and Ostrom, 1993]
Larry Masinter and Erik Ostrom. Collaborative information retrieval: Gopher from MOO. In Proc. INET '93, 1993. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/MOOGopher.ps, also: ftp://parcftp.parc.xerox.com/pub/MOO/papers/MOOGopher.html.

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Perry Mason. An Evaluation of Cosy on an Open University Course, chapter Computer-mediated Communication and Distance Education, pages 115–145. Pergamon Press, Oxford, ????

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Robin Mason. Computer conferencing in distance education. In W. Bates, editor, Media and Technology in European Distance Education, Proceedings of the EADTU workshop on Media, Methods and Technology, pages 221–226, Milton Keynes, UK, 1990. EADTU.

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John T. Masterson. Nonverbal communication in text based virtual realities. Master's thesis, unknown, unknown. URL: http://www.ism.net/%7Eswd/writings/jtmiii/.

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R. Maule, William. The network classroom. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 1(1), 1993. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/MAULE.1N1, copy at: http://www.uni-koeln.de/themen/cmc/text/metz.94.txt.

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John Maxwell. House of words, designing text and community in moo environments. Master's thesis, Simon Fraser University, December 1996. URL: http://www.harbour.sfu.ca/ccsp/People/JWMaxwel/MOO/HouseofWords.html, project page: http://www.harbour.sfu.ca/ccsp/People/JWMaxwel/MOO/toc.html.

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Mindy McAdams. Hypertext breakdown (eyewitness, intelligent agent). Hot Wired (on-line), May 1995. URL: http://www.hotwired.com/Eyewit/I-Agnt/, Author: http://www.hotwired.com/People/Bios/Mcadams.m/.

[McBeath and Webb, 1995]
B. McBeath, Graham and A. Webb, Stephen. Cities, subjectivity and cyberspace. In British Sociological Association Annual Conference 1995 'Contested Cities', LE1 7RH, UK, April 1995. University of Leicester. Also published in the cyberspace-and-society mailinglist.

[McCarthy and Monk, 1994]
C. McCarthy, John and F. Monk, Andrew. Measuring the quality of computer-mediated communication. Behaviour and Information Technology, 13(5):311–319, 1994.

[McComas, 1994]
Karen L. McComas. Teaching and learning at diversity university. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):17–20, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Karen) mccomas@marshall.edu.

[McDonough, 1995]
Jerome McDonough. Being there: The use of cyberspace in computer-mediated communication. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/cyberspace.ps, May 1995.

[McLain, 1994]
Lynton McLain. OU sees net gain for real. The Times Higher Education Supplement, page front page, September 16 1994. http://uu-gna.mit.edu:8001/uu-gna/documents/papers/thes/lynton_mclain.html.

[McWhorter, 1994]
Jeanne McWhorter. DU administrator's message and DU mission statement. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):3–5, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Jeanne) gsswky@menudo.uh.edu.

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Patrick Mendelsohn, T.R.G. Green, and P. Brna. Programming languages in education: The search for an easy start. In J-M. Hoc, T.R.G Green, R. Samurçay, and J. Gilmore, editors, Psychology of Programming, pages 175–194. Academic Press, London, 1990.

[Mendelsohn, 1995]
Patrick Mendelsohn. Learning recursive procedures through logo programming. In Proceedings of the second Logo and Mathematics Education Conference. University of London, 1995.

[Metz, 1994]
J. Metz, Michel. Computer-mediated communication: Literature review of a new context. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(2), 1994. htmladdnormallink ,copy at: http://www.uni-koeln.de/themen/cmc/text/metz.94.txt.

[Meyer et al., 1994]
Tom Meyer, David Blair, and Suzanne Hader. A MOO-based collaborative hypermedia system for www. Paper presented at IT94, 1994. URL: http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/IT94/Proceedings/VR/meyer.waxweb/meyer.html, also: http://www.cs.brown.edu/people/twm/wwwmoo.html.

[Moock, 1996]
Colin Moock. Communication in the virtual classroom. Paper submitted to SIGDOC '96, URL: http://arts.uwaterloo.ca/%7Ecamoock/virtual_classroom.htm, 1996.

[Moon, 1994a]
Flora Moon. The beginning of an education MOO (interview). The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):70–72, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: Lunar at DU.

[Moon, 1994b]
Flora Moon. Ken at collegetown (interview). The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):73–83, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text.

[Morningstar and Farmer, 1990]
Chip Morningstar and F. Randall Farmer. The lessons of lucasfilm's habitat. On-Line Publication, (also published in: M.Benedikt (ed.) Cyberspace: First Steps, MIT Press, 1991), 1990. URL: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/habitat/lessons.txt, also: http://www.uni-koeln.de/themen/cmc/text/metz.94.txt.

[Morningstar, 1991]
Chip Morningstar. Settlements on the electronic frontier. Transcript of a talk presented at IEEE CompCon '91, February 1991. ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/habitat/settlmnt.txt.

[Morris, 1994]
David Morris. The soul of a MOO machine. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):61–66, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: bweaver@worf.infonet.net.

[Moshell and Hughes, 1996]
J. Michael Moshell and Charles E Hughes. The virtual academy: A simulated environment for constructionist learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 8(1):95–110, 1996. URL: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/%7EExploreNet/papers/VA.Explanation1095.html.
The Virtual Academy is an educational model based on multi-age teams of students and adults working through the Internet to build and use virtual worlds for educational purposes. These collaborations are mediated by a range of tools ranging from electronic mail to hypermedia and video links, and result in the creation of simulation-based role-playing adventure games within the ExploreNet software environment. ExploreNet is an Internet based multimedia MUD (``Multi-User Domain'') constructed specifically for educational experimentation....

[Moshell et al., 1995]
J. Michael Moshell, Charles E. Hughes, and Mark Kilby. Virtual academy: The educational model. VC95.4, Computer Science Department and Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida, July 1995.

[Nagasiva, 1992]
Thyagi Nagasiva. The mud as a basis for western mysticism. URL: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/anthro/mudpsyc.html also: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/muds.as.psych (14K, a few lines missing), Author's Address: Tagi@Cup.Portal.Com 871 Ironwood Dr. San Jose, CA 95125-2815, December 1992.

[Nastasi and Clements, 1994]
K. Nastasi, Bonnie and H. Clements, Douglas. Effectance motivation, perceived scholastic competence, and higher-order thinking in two cooperative computer environments. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 10(3):249–274, 1994.

[Nicol et al., 1995]
David Nicol, Calum Smeaton, and Slater Alan F. Footsteps: Trail-blazing the web. In On-Line Proceedings of the Third International WWW Conference '95, Darmstadt, April 1995. URL: http://www.igd.fhg.de/www/www95/papers/60/footsteps.html.

[Nolan, 1995]
D. Nolan, Jason. An application of gowin's vee heuristic model to educational research into multi user simulated environments as a mechanism for applying the story model to transformative and holistic learning situations. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, U of Toronto (to be part of a PhD), 1995. URL: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/gowinMOO.html.

[Norman and Carter, 1994]
L. Norman, K. and L.E. Carter. An evaluation of the electronic classroom: The at&t teaching theatre at the university of maryland. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(1), 1994. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/NORMAN.2N1.

[North, 1996]
Sarah M. North. Effectiveness of virtual reality in the motivational processes of learners. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 2(1), 1996? URL (abstract): http://ijvr.uccs.edu/snorth.htm.
This brief article reports on the use of virtual reality and its effectiveness on improving and maintaining learners' intrinsic motivation or interest. Research suggests that interest contributes to learning. Therefore a study of the impact of interests is essential to an understanding of intrinsic motivation. Since the virtual environment provides a sense of presence, it may be possible to create scenarios to stimulate the learners' curiosity and interest [truncated]

[O'Brian, 1992]
Michael O'Brian. Ask Mr. protocol - playing in the MUD. SUNExpert, 3(5):19–27, 1992.

[O'Shea and Self, 1983]
T. O'Shea and J. Self. Learning and Teaching with Computers, Artificial Intelligence in Education. Harvester Press, Brighton, 1983.

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S. Papert. Mindstorm: Children, Computers and Powerful Ideas. Basic Books, New York, 1980.

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Daniel Pargman and Yvonne Waern. Programming a mud as a learning exercise. In Yvonne Waern, Daniel Pargmann, and Christer Garbis, editors, CSCW'96 workshop: Use and design of MUDs for serious purposes, 1996. URL: http://WWW.tema.liu.se/MUD/Pargman.htm.

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Flate Paulsen, Morten. Editorial: Innovative computer conferencing courses. DEOSNews, 1(14), April 1995. URL: gopher://gaya.nki.no:70/0R0-44084-/DEOSNEWS/vol1.no14, see also, the authors home page at: http://gaya.nki.no:80/%7Emorten/.

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D. Pea, Roy and M. Gomez, Lous. Distributed multimedia learning environments: Why and how? Interactive Learning Environments, 2(2):73–109, 1992.

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R.D. Pea and D.M. Kurland. On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming. New Ideas in Psychology, 2(2):137–168, 1984.

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Daniel Peraya, Christine Gardiol-Gutierrez, and Yves Manenti. Le projet JITOL Méedic, evaluation et analyse des formes de communication à distance entre experts. Rapports du projet JITOL, TECFA, Université de Genève, 1994.

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Daniel Perron. Learning on the WWW: A case study. In Electronic Proceedings of the Second World Wide Web Conference '94: Mosaic and the Web, 1994. http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/IT94/Proceedings/Educ/perron/perron.html.

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Mark D. Pesce, Peter Kennard, and Parisi Anthony S. Cyberspace. In Proceedings of The First International Conference on The World-Wide Web, 1994. URL: http://www1.cern.ch/PapersWWW94/mpesce.ps.

[Pesce, 1995]
Mark Pesce. VRML, Browsing and Building Cyberspace. New Riders, Indianapolis, 1995. URL: http://www.mcp.com/newriders/internet/vrml/ (source code, ordering information and patches).

[Quittner, 1994]
Josh Quittner. Johnny manhattan meets the furrymuckers. Wired, (138):92–97, 1994.

[Reid, 1991]
Elizabeth Reid. Communication and community on internet relay chat. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/electropolis.ps also at the authors index: http://www.ee.mu.oz.au/papers/emr/index.html, 1991.

[Reid, 1994]
Elizabeth Reid. Cultural formations in text-based virtual realities. Master's thesis, Cultural Studies Program, Department of English, University of Melbourne, January 1994. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/CulturalFormations.ps, also at the authors index: http://www.ee.mu.oz.au/papers/emr/index.html.

[Rheingold, 1993]
Howard Rheingold. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier,. HarperPerennial Paperback, also Secker and Warburg (UK), Addison Wesley (German and French Translations), 1993.

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D. Riner, Reed and A. Clodius, Jennifer. Simulating future histories: The nau solar system simulation and mars settlement. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 26(1):95–104, 1995. URL: http://tinylondon.ucsd.edu/%7Ejen/solsys.html.

[Roehl and the Humanoid Animation Working Group, 1997]
Bernie Roehl and the Humanoid Animation Working Group. Specification for a standard vrml humanoid, version 1.0. On-Line, August 1997. URL: http://ece.uwaterloo.ca:80/%7Eh-anim/spec.html.
As the 3D Internet continues to grow, there will be an increasing need to represent human beings in online virtual environments. Achieving that goal will require the creation of libraries of interchangeable humanoids, as well as authoring tools that make it easy to create new humanoids and animate them in various ways. This document specifies a standard way of representing humanoids in VRML 2.0. This standard will allow humanoids created using authoring tools from one vendor to be animated using tools from another. VRML humanoids can be animated using keyframing, inverse kinematics, performance animation systems and other techniques.

[Roehl et al., 1997]
Bernie Roehl, Justin Couch, Cindy Reed-Ballreich, Tim Rohaly, and Geoff Brown. Late Night VRML 2.0 with Java. Ziff-Davis Press, Emeryville, 1997. URL: http://ece.uwaterloo.ca:80/%7Ebroehl/vrml/lnvj/index.html.

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Janine Rogalski and Renan Samurçay. Acquisition of programming knowledge and skills. In J-M. Hoc, T.R.G Green, R. Samurçay, and J. Gilmore, editors, Psychology of Programming, pages 157–174. Academic Press, London, 1990.

[Rosenberg, 1992]
Michael S. Rosenberg. Virtual reality: Reflections of life, dreams and technology – an ethnography of a computer society. URL: http://lucien.berkeley.edu/MOO/ethnography.txt, also at: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/ethnography.txt, 1992.

[Roush, 1993]
Wade Roush. The Virtual STS Centre on MediaMOO: Issues and Challenges as Non-Technical Users Enter Social Virtual Spaces. On-line publication, STS, MIT, 1993. ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/muds/moo/STS-Centre.

[Rueda, ]
Jesus Rueda. Collaborative learning in a large scale computer conferencing system. In R. Kaye, Anthony, editor, Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing, pages 87–101, Berlin, ???? Springer-Verlag.

[Salzman et al., 1996]
Marilyn C. Salzman, Chris Dede, and R. Bowen Loftin. Learner-centered design of sensorily immersive microworld using a virtual reality interface. on-line paper, 1996? URL: http://www.vetl.uh.edu/ScienceSpace/learnvir.html.
At NASA's Johnson Space Center and George Mason University, we are using a learner- centered approach for designing and evaluating ScienceSpace, a series of virtual reality microworlds for teaching science concepts and skills that students typically have difficulty mastering. Our research goal is to examine whether virtual reality's sensorial immersion can help students remediate deeply rooted misconceptions and construct accurate mental models of abstract science concepts. Through the design and evaluation of the microworlds in ScienceSpace, we will more fully understand the general utility of sensorial immersion, as well as virtual reality's overall potential and limitations for teaching [....]

[Sandberg, 1994]
Jacobijn A. Sandberg. Educational paradigms: issues and trends. In R. Lewis and P. Mendelsohn, editors, Lessons from Learning, (IFIP TC3/WG3.3 Working Conference 1993), pages 13–22, Amsterdam, 1994. North-Holland.

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M Scardamalia, C. Bereiter, C. Brett, P. J. Burtis, C. Calhoun, and N. Smith, Lea. Educational applications of a networked communal database. Interactive Learning, 2(1):45–71, 1992.

[Schlager et al., 1996]
Mark Schlager, Patricia Schank, and Richard Godard. Tapped in to teacher professional development: An on-line conference center for education communities. In Yvonne Waern, Daniel Pargmann, and Christer Garbis, editors, CSCW'96 workshop: Use and design of MUDs for serious purposes, 1996. URL: http://www.tappedin.sri.com/info/workshop.html.

[Schneider and Block, 1995]
Daniel Schneider and Kayla Block. The world-wide web in education. ANDREA Newsletter, A Network for Distance Education Reporting from European Activities, 2(5), 1995. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/tecfa-research/CMC/andrea95/andrea.html.

[Schneider and Richard, 1996]
Daniel Schneider and Godard Richard. Virtual environments for education, research and life. Position paper for the workshop on ``Virtual Environments and the WWW at the Fifth International World Wide Web Conference, April 1996. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/moo/paris96/papers/daniel.html.

[Schweller, 1994]
Ken Schweller. Building tools for education. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):49–51, 1994. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Ken) schweller@bvc.edu.

[Scolamiero, 1994]
Samantha J Scolamiero. How i lost 20 pounds on the new moo diet. 41. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):41–45, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Samantha) samajane@mit.edu.

[Serpentelli, 1995]
Jill Serpentelli. Conversational structure and personality correlates... (116k). URL: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/conv-structure, 1995.

[Shade, 1994]
Regan Shade, Leslie. Book review: Global networks: Computers and international communication. edited by linda m. harasim. cambridge, mass: Mit press, 1993. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 3(1):82–87, 1994. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/SHADE.3N1.

[Silva and Breulex, 1994]
Marcos Silva and Alain Breulex. The use of participatory design in the implementation of internet-based collaborative learning activities in k-12 classrooms. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(3):99–128, 1994. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/SILVA.2N3.

[Snetsinger, 1995]
Wendy Snetsinger. Book review: Computer mediated communication and the online classroom (1995), edited by zane l. berge and mauri p. collins hampton press, inc. cresskill nj. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 3(3):91–95, 1995. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/SNETSING.3N3.

[Solomon, 1996]
C. Solomon. Computer environments for children: a reflexion on theories of learning and education. The MIT Press, Cambridge (MA), 1996.

[Speh, 1994]
Marcus Speh. A virtual programming course using the MOO. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):21–27, 1994. URL: http://info.desy.de/www/gna/DUVEJ.html, ASCII: http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: (Marcus) marcus@andersen.co.uk.

[Spellman and Carlson, 1997]
Peter J. Spellman and Jay Carlson. Collaborative virtual workspace. In Yvonne Waern, Daniel Pargmann, and Christer Garbis, editors, CSCW'96 workshop: Use and design of MUDs for serious purposes, 1997. URL: http://WWW.tema.liu.se/MUD/mitre.htm.

[Steffen, 1993]
David Steffen. A cynic looks at moos (18k). URL: http://www.oise.on.ca/%7Ejnolan/muds/about_muds/cynic, January 1993.

[Stephenson, 1992]
Neal Stephenson. Snow Crash. Bantam, 1992.

[STRATE, 1995]
Lance STRATE. Experiencing cybertime: Computing as activity and event. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 3(2):78–91, 1995. http://www.helsinki.fi/science/optek/STRATE.3N2.

[Tennison and Churchil, 1996]
Jenifer Tennison and Elizabeth Churchil. Individual and collaborative information retrieval in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the 1996 Postgraduate Conference. Department of Psychology, University of Nottingham, June 1996. URL: http://www.psyc.nott.ac.uk/aigr/papers/IR_in_VEs/IR_in_VEs.html.

[Tennison, 1995a]
Jenifer Tennison. CHIME: Collaborative hyperarchical integrated media environment. In Proceedings of 3rd International World-Wide Web Conference, Darmstadt, April 1995. AI Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Nottingham. URL: http://www.psyc.nott.ac.uk/%7Ejft/phd/CHIMEabstract.html, also: http://sensemedia.net/papers/surfer/1718.

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Jenifer Tennison. Living documents: adding collaboration to information systems. In Proceedings of the 1995 Postgraduate Conference. AI Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Nottingham, June 1995. URL: http://www.psyc.nott.ac.uk/aigr/papers/Living-Documents/paper.html.

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John Tiffin and Lalita Rajasingham. In Search of the Virtual Class. Routeledge, 1995.

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Sandrine Tognotti, Daniel Schneider, and Patrick Mendelsohn. Analysis of moo and woo environments. Technical report, TECFA, FPSE, University of Geneva, 1995. URL: http://tecfa.unige.ch/moo/VMDL/VMDL-1.html.

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John F. Towell and Elizabeth R. Towell. Internet conferencing with networked virtual environments. Internet Research, 5(3), 1994. URL: http://www.mcs.anl.gov/home/towell/IntRes.html.

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Jolanda G. Tromp. Results of two surveys about spatial perception and navigation of text-based spatial interface. URL: http://www.cms.dmu.ac.uk/%7Ecph/VR/JolaPaper/jola.html, Authors email: tromp@uvapsy.psy.uva.nl, 1993.

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J. Unsworth. Living inside the (operating) system: Community in virtual reality. In T.M. Harrison and Stephen T.D., editors, Computer networking and scholarly communication in the 21st century. SUNY Press, Albany, 1995. URL (draft): http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/Virtual.Community.html.

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Oliver Valle. The challenge of conferencing system development. In R. Kaye, Anthony, editor, Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing, pages 181–187, Berlin, ???? Springer-Verlag.

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Jouke C. Verlinden, Jay David Bolter, and Charles van der Mast. Virtual annotation: Verbal communication and virtual reality. URL: ftp://ftp.twi.tudelft.nl/TWI/publications/tech-reports/1993/DUT-TWI-93-67.ps.gz, 1993.

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Jouke C. Verlinden, Jay David Bolter, and Charles van der Mast. The world processor: Effective manipulation of textual information in virtual environments. URL: ftp://ftp.twi.tudelft.nl/TWI/publications/tech-reports/1993/DUT-TWI-93.55.ps.gz, 1993.

[Verlinden, 1993]
Jouke C. Verlinden. Virtual books: Integrating virtual reality and hypertext. URL: file://ftp.twi.tudelft.nl/TWI/publications/masters-thesis/, August 1993.

[Waern et al., 1996]
Yvonne Waern, Daniel Pargmann, and Christer Garbis. Use and design of muds for serious purposes. http://WWW.tema.liu.se/MUD/, November 1996. URL: http://WWW.tema.liu.se/MUD/.

[Warshauer, 1994]
Susan Warshauer. Aesthetic approaches to the design and study of MUDs (multi-user domains) in english and performance studies: Interface, realism and the dialectic of interacting. CWRL, 1(1), 1994. URL: http://www.en.utexas.edu/%7Ecwrl/v1n1/article3/mudmain.html.

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Richard C. Waters, David B. Anderson, John W. Barrus, David C. Brogan, Michael A. Casey, Stephen G. McKeown, Tohel Nitta, Ilene B. Sterns, and William S. Yerazunis. Diamond park and spline: Social virtual reality with 3d animation, spoken interaction, and runtime extendability. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4):461–481, August 1997. URL: http://www.merl.com/reports/TR96-02a/index.html (Tech Report).
Diamond Park is a social virtual reality system in which multiple geographically separated users can speak to each other and participate in joint activities. The central theme of the park is cycling. Human visitors to the park are represented by 3D animated avatars and can explore a square mile of 3D terrain. In addition to human visitors, the park hosts a number of computer simulations, including tour buses and autonomous animated figures. Diamond Park is implemented using a software platform called Spline, which makes it easy to build virtual worlds where multiple people interact with each other and with computer simulations in a 3D visual and audio environment. Spline performs all the processing necessary to maintain a distributed, modifiable, and extendable model of a virtual world that is shared between the participants

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Margit Watts and Ben Millard. Collaboratory. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):67–69, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: watts@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu and bmillard@interaccess.com.

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Troy Whitlock. Technological hierarchy in moo, reflections on power in cyberspace. RTF 393C, 1994. URL: http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/%7Esmack/papers/TechHier.txt.

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Richard W. Wiggins. The Internet for Everyone: A Guide for Users and Providers. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.

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William Winn. A conceptual basis for educational applications of virtual reality. Technical Report TR-93-9, Human Interface Technology Laboratory, Washington Technology Center, University of Washington, August 1993. URL: http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/tech-reports/tr-93-9-winn.html.

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Gary Worlf. The curse of xanandu?? Wired Magazine, ??(??):??, ?? URL: http://sensemedia.net/sprawl/37034, See also Ted Nelson's reply: http://xanadu.net/ararat.

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Robert E III Wray, Ronald Chong, Joseph Phillips, Seth Rogers, William Walsh, and John Laird. Organizing information in mosaic: A classroom experiment. In Electronic Proceedings of the Second World Wide Web Conference '94: Mosaic and the Web, 1994. URL: http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/IT94/Proceedings/Educ/wray/wrayre-experiment-mosaic94.html.

[Young, 1994]
R. Young, Jeffrey. Textuality in cyberspace: Muds and written experience. On-Line publication, From jryoung@phoenix.Princeton.EDU, May 1994. URL: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/muds/Textuality-in-Cyberspace.

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Christine Youngblut. Educational uses of virtual reality technology. Technical Report IDA Document Report D-2128, Institute for Defense Analyses, 1998. URL: http://www.hitl.washington.edu/scivw/youngblut-edvr/D2128.pdf.

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R. Zenhausern, A. Pemberton, and L. Elman. Learning disability and education in the 21st century. The Diversity University Journal of Virtual Reality Education, 1(1):29–40, 1994. http://tecfa.unige.ch/edu-comp/DUJVRE/vol1/DUJVRE.1.1.text, email: drz@sjuvm.stjohns.edu.