4.16 Is there anything special to do when upgrading/downgrading MySQL?

You can always move the MySQL form and data files between different versions on the same architecture as long as you have the same base version of MySQL. The current base version is 3. If you change the character set by recompiling MySQL (which may also change the sort order), you must run isamchk -r -q on all tables. Otherwise your indexes may not be ordered correctly.

If you are paranoid and/or afraid of new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld to something like mysqld-'old-version-number'. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld!

When you do an upgrade you should also backup your old databases, of course. Sometimes it's good to be a little paranoid!

After an upgrade, if you experience problems with recompiled client programs, like Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used an old header or library file when compiling your programs. In this case you should check the date for your `mysql.h' file and `libmysqlclient.a' library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, please recompile your programs!

If you get some problems that the new mysqld server doesn't want to start or that you can't connect without a password, check that you don't have some old `my.cnf' file from your old installation! You can check this with: program-name --print-defaults. If this outputs anything other than the program name, you have a active my.cnf file that will may affect things!

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.

4.16.1 Upgrading from a 3.22 version to 3.23

MySQL 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old NISAM type. You don't have to convert your old tables to use these with 3.23. By default, all new tables will be created with type MyISAM (unless you start mysqld with the --default-table-type=isam option. You can change an ISAM table to a MyISAM table with ALTER TABLE or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_format.

3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a 3.23 server.

The following lists what you have to watch out for when upgrading to 3.23:

  • INNER and DELAYED are now reserved words.
  • FLOAT(4) and FLOAT(8) are now true floating point types.
  • When declaring DECIMAL(length,dec) the length argument no longer includes a place for the sign or the decimal point.
  • A TIME string must now be of one of the following formats: [[[DAYS] [H]H:]MM:]SS[.fraction] or [[[[[H]H]H]H]MM]SS[.fraction]
  • LIKE now compares strings using the same character comparison rules as '='. If you require the old behavior, you can compile MySQL with the CXXFLAGS=-DLIKE_CMP_TOUPPER flag.
  • REGEXP is now case insensitive for normal (not binary) strings.
  • When you check/repair tables you should use myisamchk for MyISAM tables (.MYI) and isamchk for ISAM (.ISM) tables.
  • If you want your mysqldumps to be compatible between MySQL 3.22 and 3.23, you should not use the --opt or --full option to mysqldump.
  • Check all your calls to DATE_FORMAT() to make sure there is a `%' before each format character.
  • mysql_fetch_fields_direct is now a function (it was a macro) and it returns a pointer to a MYSQL_FIELD instead of a MYSQL_FIELD.
  • mysql_num_fields() can no longer be used on a MYSQL* object (it's now a function that takes MYSQL_RES* as an argument. You should now use mysql_field_count() instead.
  • In MySQL 3.22, the output of SELECT DISTINCT ... was almost always sorted. In 3.23, you must use GROUP BY or ORDER BY to obtain sorted output.
  • SUM() now returns NULL, instead of 0, if there is no matching rows. This is according to ANSI SQL.
  • New restricted words: CASE, THEN, WHEN, ELSE and END

4.16.2 Upgrading from a 3.21 version to 3.22

Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between 3.21 and 3.22. The only pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to store the date. You can't access these new fields from an old version of mysqld.

After installing MySQL 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need to use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you try to use ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX or DROP INDEX. If your MySQL root user requires a password, you should give this as an argument to mysql_fix_privilege_tables.

The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client program that calls this function, you must place a 0 for the new db argument (or recode the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_init() before calling mysql_real_connect()! This change was done to allow the new mysql_options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.

4.16.3 Upgrading from a 3.20 version to 3.21

If you are running a version older than 3.20.28 and want to switch to 3.21.x, you need to do the following:

You can start the mysqld 3.21 server with safe_mysqld --old-protocol to use it with clients from the 3.20 distribution. In this case, the new client function mysql_errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR, (but it works for client errors) and the server uses the old password() checking rather than the new one.

If you are NOT using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the following changes:

  • All client code must be recompiled. If you are using ODBC, you must get the new MyODBC 2.x driver.
  • The script scripts/add_long_password must be run to convert the Password field in the mysql.user table to CHAR(16).
  • All passwords must be reassigned in the mysql.user table (to get 62-bit rather than 31-bit passwords).
  • The table format hasn't changed, so you don't have to convert any tables.

MySQL 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least 3.20.28 and then upgrade to 3.21.x.

The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with 3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will issue the error message:

ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9

The new Perl DBI/DBD interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, password (the user and password arguments have changed places). Perl DBI Class.

The following changes may affect queries in old applications:

  • HAVING must now be specified before any ORDER BY clause.
  • The parameters to LOCATE() have been swapped.
  • There are some new reserved words. The most notable are DATE, TIME and TIMESTAMP.

4.16.4 Upgrading to another architecture

If you are using MySQL 3.23, you can copy the .frm, the .MYI and the .MYD files between different architectures that support the same floating point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte swapping issues).

The MySQL data `*.ISD' and the index files `*.ISM' files) are architecture-dependent and in some case OS-dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or OS than your current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use mysqldump instead.

By default, mysqldump will create a file full of SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt with the newer version to get a fast, compact dump.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name \
        | mysql -h 'other hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other hostname' --opt --compress db_name \
        | mysql db_name

You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz

(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to accomplish the database transfer. For big tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the commands shown below, DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Also, don't forget to copy the mysql database, since that's where the grant tables (user, db, host) are stored. You may have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.