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3.3 Research

When your civilization begins the game, it has knowledge of some exceedingly primitive "technologies": Pottery, Road Building, Horsemanship, and the like. Although your citizens can scarcely conceive of anything better, you (the human player) are undoubtedly aware of many more advanced technological and sociological developments. These advances would give your people advantages in controlling their environment, making weapons, influencing the neighbors, and otherwise achieving your goals.

At any point in the game, depending on what advancements your race already knows, there will be a limited number of technologies towards which you may perform research. Most advancements have two earlier advancements as prerequisites; for instance, you may not do research into Magnetism until you have developed both Iron Working and Physics. The choices available to you will include only those for which you have the prerequisites. You will use the game's Research Window to select from the available advancements the one you wish your people to work towards. This selection will be forced on you when you first start researching, or when you complete an advancement (either by research, by discovery in a Village, or by diplomatic treaty). You will most likely set long-term goals, and when one step towards the goal is completed the game will automatically start the next step.

To develop an advancement requires a certain number of research points; the number of points required depends not on the advancement itself, but on how many advancements you have already discovered. A further increase in the cost of research takes place in 1 C.E., where it doubles. Each turn, your cities produce research points, as dictated by their raw trade input, your allocation of trade into research, the presence of research-promoting buildings and Wonders, and the employment of research specialists. These points accumulate, and the game's research window will show you the number of points you need. The main game window also has a lightbulb, which grows brighter as you grow closer to completing an advancement.

Civilization advancements bring a variety of benefits. Most open up new areas of possible research, as Physics makes it possible to work towards Magnetism. Many allow you to build buildings or units that were previously unknown to you; for instance, Construction allows you to build an Aqueduct, while Magnetism allows you to build the Galleon, and Electronics allows the Hoover Dam Wonder. Some advances also make earlier ones obsolete and thus make buildings or units based on them obsolete; for instance, the discovery of Gunpowder makes the Legion obsolete (because the new Musketeers unit is better in all respects), and makes obsolete the Barracks I (because the Barracks II is available and required), and the discovery of Electricity makes the Great Library Wonder obsolete. Some allow new forms of government; some, like Bridge Building, allow units abilities they lacked before; some trigger environmental effects.

The help system in the main game window contains all of the following information on each advancement. In addition, it displays a graphical depiction of the chain of advancements necessary to achieve a goal. Using it, for example, you could quickly see what you lack to develop Gunpowder, and in what order they must be discovered.

Advancement Prerequisites Description
Advanced Flight Radio, Machine Tools Allows Bomber, Carrier.
Alphabet None
Amphibious Warfare Navigation, Tactics Allows Marines, Port Facility
Astronomy Mysticism, Mathematics Allows Copernicus' Observatory Wonder.
Atomic Theory Theory of Gravity, Physics
Automobile Combustion, Steel Allows Battleship, Super Highways. Obsoletes Leonardo's Workshop Wonder.
Banking Trade, The Republic Allows Bank.
Bridge Building Iron Working, Construction Permits Settlers and Engineers to build roads in River squares.
Bronze Working None Allows Phalanx, Colossus Wonder.
Ceremonial Burial None Allows Temple.
Chemistry University, Medicine
Chivalry Feudalism, Horseback Riding Allows Knights. Obsoletes Horsemen, Chariot.
Code of Laws Alphabet Allows Courthouse.
Combined Arms Mobile Warfare, Advanced Flight Allows Helicopter.
Combustion Refining, Explosives Allows Submarine.
Communism Philosophy, Industrialization Allows Police Station, United Nations Wonder. Permits use of the Communism government type. Decreases the effect of Cathedrals in your empire.
Computers Mass Production, Miniaturization Allows Research Lab, SETI Program Wonder.
Conscription Democracy, Metallurgy Allows Riflemen. Obsoletes Musketeers.
Construction Masonry, Currency Allows Aqueduct, Colosseum. Permits Settlers and Engineers to build Fortress.
Currency Bronze Working Allows Marketplace.
Democracy Banking, Invention Allows Statue of Liberty Wonder. Permits use of the Democracy government type.
Economics Banking, University Allows Stock Exchange, Adam Smith's Trading Company Wonder.
Electricity Metallurgy, Magnetism Allows Destroyer. Obsoletes Ironclad, Great Library Wonder. Improves Colosseum; now makes 4 unhappy citizens content.
Electronics The Corporation, Electricity Allows Hydro Plant, Hoover Dam Wonder.
Engineering The Wheel, Construction Allows King Richard's Crusade Wonder.
Espionage Communism, Democracy Allows Spy. Obsoletes Diplomat.
Explosives Gunpowder, Chemistry Allows Engineers. Obsoletes Settlers.
Feudalism Warrior Code, Monarchy Allows Pikemen, Sun Tzu's War Academy Wonder. Obsoletes Warriors, Phalanx.
Flight Combustion, Theory of Gravity Allows Fighter. Obsoletes Colossus Wonder.
Fusion Power Nuclear Power, Superconductors
Genetic Engineering Medicine, The Corporation Allows Cure For Cancer Wonder.
Guerilla Warfare Communism, Tactics Allows all civilizations to spawn Partisan units if they meet other conditions; see Partisans. Obsoletes Explorer.
Gunpowder Invention, Iron Working Allows Musketeers, Barracks II. Obsoletes Archers, Legion, Pikemen, Barracks I.
Horseback Riding None Allows Horsemen.
Industrialization Railroad, Banking Allows Transport, Factory, Women's Suffrage Wonder. Obsoletes Galleon, King Richard's Crusade Wonder.
Invention Engineering, Literacy Allows Leonardo's Workshop Wonder.
Iron Working Bronze Working, Warrior Code Allows Legion.
Labor Union Mass Production, Guerilla Warfare Allows Mechanized Infantry.
Laser Mass Production, Nuclear Power Allows SDI Defense.
Leadership Chivalry, Gunpowder Allows Dragoons. Obsoletes Knights.
Literacy Writing, Code of Laws Allows Great Library Wonder.
Machine Tools Steel, Tactics Allows Artillery. Obsoletes Cannon.
Magnetism Iron Working, Physics Allows Galleon, Frigate. Obsoletes Caravel, Lighthouse Wonder.
Map Making Alphabet Allows Trireme, Lighthouse Wonder.
Masonry None Allows City Walls, Palace (if you need to rebuild one), Great Wall Wonder, Pyramids Wonder.
Mass Production Automobile, The Corporation Allows Mass Transit
Mathematics Alphabet, Masonry Allows Catapult
Medicine Philosophy, Trade Allows Shakespeare's Theatre Wonder
Metallurgy Gunpowder, University Allows Cannon, Coastal Defense. Obsoletes Catapult, Great Wall Wonder.
Miniaturization Machine Tools, Electronics Allows Offshore Platform.
Mobile Warfare Automobile, Tactics Allows Armor, Barracks III. Obsoletes Cavalry, Barracks II, Sun Tzu's War Academy Wonder.
Monarchy Ceremonial Burial, Code of Laws Permits use of the Monarchy government type.
Monotheism Philosophy, Polytheism Allows Cathedral, Michaelangelo's Chapel Wonder.
Mysticism Ceremonial Burial Allows Oracle Wonder. Doubles effectiveness of Temple, to make a total of two unhappy citizens content.
Navigation Seafaring, Astronomy Allows Caravel, Magellan's Expedition wonder. Obsoletes Trireme.
Nuclear Fission Mass Production, Atomic Theory Allows Manhattan Project Wonder.
Nuclear Power Nuclear Fission, Electronics Allows Nuclear Plant. Gives all of your sea units an extra movement point.
Philosophy Mysticism, Literacy First player to discover Philosophy gets an extra advancement.
Physics Literacy, Navigation
Plastics Refining, Space Flight Allows Space Component.
Polytheism Horseback Riding, Ceremonial Burial
Pottery None Allows Granary, Hanging Gardens Wonder.
Radio Flight, Electricity Allows Airport.
Railroad Steam Engine, Bridge Building Allows Darwin's Voyage Wonder. Obsoletes Hanging Gardens Wonder. Permits Settlers and Engineers to upgrade roads to railroads.
Recycling Mass Production, Democracy Allows Recycling Center
Refining Chemistry, The Corporation Allows Power Plant.
Refrigeration Sanitation, Electricity Allows Supermarket.
Robotics Mobile Warfare, Computers Allows Howitzer, Manufacturing Plant. Obsoletes Artillery.
Rocketry Advanced Flight, Electronics Allows Aegis Cruiser, Cruise Missile, Nuclear, SAM Battery. Obsoletes Cruiser.
Sanitation Engineering, Medicine Allows Sewer System.
Seafaring Pottery, Map Making Allows Explorer, Harbour.
Space Flight Computers, Rocketry Allows Space Structural, Apollo Program Wonder.
Stealth Superconductors, Robotics Allows Stealth Fighter, Stealth Bomber. Obsoletes Fighter, Bomber.
Steam Engine Physics, Invention Allows Ironclad. Obsoletes Frigate.
Steel Electricity, Industrialization Allows Cruiser.
Superconductors Nuclear Power, Laser Allows Space Module.
Tactics Conscription, Leadership Allows Alpine Troops, Cavalry. Obsoletes Dragoons.
The Corporation Economics, Industrialization Allows Freight, Capitalization. Obsoletes Caravan.
The Republic Code of Laws, Literacy Permits use of the Republic government type.
The Wheel Horseback Riding Allows Chariot.
Theology Feudalism, Monotheism Allows J. S. Bach's Cathedral Wonder. Obsoletes Oracle Wonder. Improves Cathedrals to make one more unhappy citizen content.
Theory of Gravity Astronomy, University Allows Isaac Newton's College Wonder.
Trade Currency, Code of Laws Allows Caravan.
University Mathematics, Philosophy Allows University.
Warrior Code None Allows Archers.
Writing Alphabet Allows Diplomat, Library.

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