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Projet YRE 99-2000 à Genève
Rapport complet en français
There are two kinds of diabetes: insulino-dependent diabetes and non-insulino-dependent diabetes. The first consists in an incapacity of the pancreas to secrete sufficient insulin, hormone that makes it possible for the cells to assimilate sugar. This diabetes starts especially with children and with teenagers, and therefore are called youthful diabetes. The second consists in an incapacity of the cells to absorb secreted insulin. This diabetes touches especially people of more than 40 years old.
The diabetes is a disease, which can cause many problems of a circulatory nature and eyepieces, chronic renal insufficiencies, and sensitises the patient with the oral, coetaneous, and gynaecological infections.
It is currently possible to produce by genetic engineering insulin necessary to the well-being of the patients. For that, the gene coding insulin is taken from a healthy person in order to be integrated into a bacterium plasmid, which, once modified, will be reintroduced in the latter, which will consequently produce the desired insulin.
Currently, the researchers are working on a new process which would make it possible to avoid the daily insulin injection. The modified plasmid as above will this time not be reinstated in the bacterium, but will be injected directly into the cells of the liver of the patient using liposomes, kind of small droplets of grease. The human body would produce itself its insulin. However, this process works for the moment only on rats.
One also seeks to find the genes responsible for the disease (who are numerous), in order to be able to modify them in order to cure the disease at his source. But there still, one is far from obtaining that result.
Genetic engineering thus allows much hope for the processing of the diabetes. However, the use of this new medicine is very discussed, because the man then plans to be caught with the identity even individuals of them: their genome...
Full report (french)
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