4.6 Installer une version binaire de MySQL

You need the following tools to install a MySQL binary distribution:

  • GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
  • A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work.

An alternative installation méthode under Linux is to use RPM (RedHat Package Manager) distributions. 4.6.1 Linux RPM.

If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. 2.3 Comment rapporter des bugs et des problèmes.

The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.

Here follows a more detailed description:

To install a binary distribution, follow the steps below, then proceed to 4.15 Paramètrage post-installation et tests, for post-installation setup and testing:

  1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it. In the example below, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local' and create a directory `/usr/local/mysql' into which MySQL is installed. (The following instructions therefore assume you have permission to create files in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
  2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in Getting MySQL. MySQL binary distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number (e.g., 3.21.15), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (e.g., pc-linux-gnu-i586).
  3. Unpack the distribution and create the installation directory:
    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
    The first command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION-OS'. The second command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as `/usr/local/mysql'.
  4. Change into the installation directory:
    shell> cd mysql
    You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the `bin' and `scripts' subdirectories.
    This directory contains client programs and the server You should add the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly.
    This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the server access permissions.
  5. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the `bin/mysqlaccess' script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:
    $MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable
    Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, you will get a broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.
  6. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven't installed MySQL before):
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
  7. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see 4.10 Remarques sur l'installation Perl.
  8. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself, and in 4.15.3 Démarrer et arrête MySQL automatiquement.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should initialize and test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command:

shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

Note that MySQL versions older than 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!

4.15 Paramètrage post-installation et tests.

4.6.1 Linux RPM

The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using an RPM file. The MySQL RPMs are currently being built on a RedHat 5.2 system but should work on other versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc.

If you have problems with an RPM file, for example Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up, see Linux notes.

The RPM files you may want to use are:

  • MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm The MySQL server. You will need this unless you only want to connect to another MySQL server running on another machine.
  • MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.
  • MySQL-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm Tests and benchmarks. Requires Perl and msql-mysql-modules RPMs.
  • MySQL-devel-VERSION.i386.rpm Libraries and include files needed if you want to compile other MySQL clients, such as the Perl modules.
  • MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm This contains the source code for all of the above packages. It can also be used to try to build RPMs for other architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).

To see all files in an RPM package:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, run this command:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

To install just the client package:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

The RPM places data in `/var/lib/mysql'. The RPM also creates the appropriate entries in `/sbin/rc.d/' to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation, you may want to make a copy of your previously-installed MySQL startup file if you made any changes to it, so you don't lose your changes.)

After installing the RPM file(s), go to the binary install section and use the instructions there, starting from the step that creates the MySQL grant tables. 4.6 Installer une version binaire de MySQL.

4.6.2 Construire un programme client

If you compile MySQL clients that you've written yourself or that you obtain from a third party, they must be linked using the -lmysqlclient option on the link command. You may also need to specify a -L option to tell the linker where to find the library. For example, if the library is installed in `/usr/local/mysql/lib', use -L/usr/local/mysql/lib -lmysqlclient on the link command.

For clients that use MySQL header files, you may need to specify a -I option when you compile them (for example, -I/usr/local/mysql/include), so the compiler can find the header files.

4.6.3 Instruction spécifiques aux OS

The following sections indicate some of the issues that have been observed to occur on particular systems when installing MySQL from a binary distribution. Linux notes

MySQL needs at least Linux 2.0.

The binary release is linked with -static, which means you not normally need not worry about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads, either. A program linked with -static is slightly bigger than a dynamically-linked program but also slightly faster (3-5%). One problem however is that you can't use user definable functions (UDFs) with a statically-linked program. If you are going to write or use UDF functions (this is something only for C or C++ programmers) you must compile MySQL yourself, using dynamic linking.

If you are using a libc-based system (instead of a glibc2 system), you will probably get some problems with hostname resolving and getpwnam() with the binary release. (This is because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to resolve hostnames and getwpent() , even when compiled with -static). In this case you probably get the following error message when you run mysql_install_db:

Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up

or the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user option:

getpwnam: No such file or directory

You can solve this problem one of the following ways:

  • Get a MySQL source distribution (an RPM or the tar distribution) and install this instead.
  • Execute mysql_install_db --force; This will not execute the resolveip test in mysql_install_db. The downside is that you can't use host names in the grant tables; you must use IP numbers instead (except for localhost). If you are using an old MySQL release that doesn't support --force you have to remove the resolveip test in mysql_install with an editor.
  • Start mysqld with su instead of using --user.

The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.

MySQL Perl support requires Perl 5.004_03 or newer. HP-UX notes

The binary distribution of MySQL for HP-UX is distributed as an HP depot file and as a tar file. To use the depot file you must be running at least HP-UX 10.x to have access to HP's software depot tools.

The HP version of MySQL was compiled on an HP 9000/8xx server under HP-UX 10.20, and uses MIT-pthreads. It is known to work well under this configuration. MySQL 3.22.26 and newer can also be built with HP's native thread package.

Other configurations that may work:

  • HP 9000/7xx running HP-UX 10.20+
  • HP 9000/8xx running HP-UX 10.30

The following configurations almost definitely won't work:

  • HP 9000/7xx or 8xx running HP-UX 10.x where x < 2
  • HP 9000/7xx or 8xx running HP-UX 9.x

To install the distribution, use one of the commands below, where /path/to/depot is the full pathname of the depot file:

  • To install everything, including the server, client and development tools:
    shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.full
  • To install only the server:
    shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.server
  • To install only the client package:
    shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.client
  • To install only the development tools:
    shell> /usr/sbin/swinstall -s /path/to/depot mysql.developer

The depot places binaries and libraries in `/opt/mysql' and data in `/var/opt/mysql'. The depot also creates the appropriate entries in `/sbin/init.d' and `/sbin/rc2.d' to start the server automatically at boot time. Obviously, this entails being root to install.

To install the HP-UX tar distribution, you must have a copy of gnu tar.