Emotions, affect, affective computing, flow, creativity
I'd like to become some of our educational portals emotional and I also am interested in affective states of students (and their relation to learning tasks). I'd probably will have 2 masters thesis in the area. To know these areas a bit better, I collected some pointers on emotion, affective computing, flow theory, etc. Choice of links is pretty random and very eclectic (therefore you also find pointers to marginally related things like personality). I don't have much time for this, but needed some departure points ... (sept 2004). Not sure that I will keep this updated ....
There is no smart classification and selection principle :)
For some articles you may need on-line subscription to read them (however some stuff can be found with google)! See also and mainly indexes and research groups below.
Various Theories, concepts, etc.
- Hermann Astleitner, Designing Emotionally Sound Instruction: The FEASP-Approach, Instructional Science 28 (3): 169-198, May 2000 (online at Kluwer).
- Affect Control Theory (ACT) tutorial. See also D. Heise's homepage
- Emotional expression and modality: an analysis of affective arousal and linguistic output in a computer vs. paper paradigm,
William G. Sharp, David S. Hargrove, Computers in Human Behavior 20 (2004) 461.
- Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Study Employing the Experience Sampling Method, Andre Bishay, Journal Undergradaduate Sciences 3: 147-154 (Fall 1996)
- Is confidence in decisions related to feedback? Evidence and lack of evidence from random samples of real-world behaviorRobin M. Hogarth, ICREA & Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. To appear in Klaus Fiedler and Peter Juslin (Eds), In the beginning there is a sample:
Information sampling as a key to understand adaptive cognition. Cambridge, UK:
- Moods And Quality Of Life Charlotte Bloch, Journal of Happiness Studies 3: 101-128, 2002. © 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. [Flow and Stress]
- The Development of Interest and Motivational Orientations: Gender Differences in Vocational Education Klaus-Peter Wild, Andreas Krapp, Inge Schreyer, and Doris Lewalter,
University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany, in L. Hoffinann, A. Krapp, K. A. Renninger, and J. Baumert (Eds.):Interest and Learning, 1998, (pp 441-454), Kiel: IPN. (use experience sampling).
Emotional machines, and modeling
- Emotional Computers Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research, by Gerd Ruebenstrunk (available in Deutsch also). This is a very useful text with a lot of overviews of various work in the area..
- The Architectural Basis of Affective States and Processes, Aaron Sloman, Ron Chrisley and Matthias Scheutz, Paper to be included in a book on emotions in animals and machines: 'Who needs emotions?', edited by Jean-Marc Fellous and Michael Arbib. (Note: Many more papers at this site)
- Beyond Shallow Models of Emotion , Aaron Sloman, In Cognitive Processing, Vol 2, No 1, 2001, pp 177-198 (Summer 2001). Quote: " ... There are also deeper theories that link emotional states to a variety of mechanisms within an information processing architecture that are not easily observable or measurable, not least because they are components of virtual machines rather than physical or physiological mechanisms ..."
- SAB'98 Workshop 5: Grounding Emotions in Adaptive Systems. This is a collection of papers.
- Moffat, D. und Frijda, N.H. (1995). Where there's a Will there's an Agent. In: M.J. Woolridge und N.R. Jennings (eds.): Intelligent Agents - Proceedings of the 1994 Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages. Springer. (sorry no online version). But this paper is quite important because it formulates a theory of "concerns". An older version of this work is available as: Analysis of a computer model of emotions, Moffat, D. and Frijda, N.H. and Phaf, R.H. (1993) Analysis of a computer model of emotions, in Sloman, A. and Hogg, D. and Humphreys, G. and Ramsay, A., Eds. Prospects for artificial intelligence, pages pp. 219-228. IOS Press, Amsterdam.
- Goal creation in motivated agents Norman, T. J. and Long, D. P. (1995). Goal Creation in Motivated Agents. In M. J. Wooldridge & N. R. Jennings (editors) Intelligent Agents: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures and Languages, volume 890 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Springer-Verlag, pages 277-290.
- Principled Generation of Expressive Behavior in an Interactive Exhibit. Petta P.: Principled Generation of Expressive Behavior in an Interactive Exhibit, in Velasquez J.D.(ed.), Workshop Notes: "Emotion-Based Agent Architectures" (EBAA'99), May 1, 1999, 3rd Int'l Conf. on Autonomous Agents (Agents'99), Seattle, WA, USA, pp.94-98, 1999.
Experience, flow, other affective states
This is what I am most interested in curently, in particular "optimal experience" (flow). This section contains in particular work using experience sampling methologies.
- Making Schoolwork More Like Real Work, Exemplary School-to-Work Programs Show Promise for More Purposeful and Engaged Learning, by Adria Steinberg, Harvard Education Letter.
- Happiness in Everyday Life: The Uses of Experience Sampling Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi & Jeremy Hunter, Journal of Happiness Studies, Volume 4, Issue 2, Jan 2003, Pages: 185-199.
- Flow Experience and Autotelic Personality in Japanese College Students: How do they Experience Challenges in Daily Life? by Kiyoshi Asakawa, Journal of Happiness Studies
5 (2): 123-154, 2004
- Thoughts About Education, short text by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
- Optimal Flow Experience in Web Navigation, Hsiang Chen, Rolf T. Wigand and Michael Nilan, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University (PDF)
- Flow & Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, short text by David Farmer (good summary of "flow" and its place in feelings in skills/challenge matrix.
- Quality of Experience in Virtual EnvironmentsAndrea Gaggioli, Marta Bassi, Antonella Delle Fave, in G. Riva, F. Davide, W.A IJsselsteijn (Eds.), Being There: Concepts, effects and measurement of user presence in synthetic environments, Ios Press, 2003, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- Optimal experience in work and leisure among teachers and physicians: Individual and bio-cultural implications Antonella Delle Fave And Fausto Massimini, Leisure Studies 22 (October 2003) 323 - 342
- Experience Sampling: Promises And Pitfalls,
Strengths And WeaknessesChristie Napa Scollon, Chu Kim-Prieto And Ed Diener, Journal of Happiness Studies 4: 5-34, 2003.
© 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
- Context-Aware Experience Sampling for the
Design and Study of Ubiquitous Technologies, John C. Rondoni, Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, May 2003. (includes description of an implementation on PDAs)
- Ausprägung des Flow-Erlebnis beim Internetsurfverhalten in Abhängigkeit von persönlichen und situativen Faktoren, Tzanetakis, Robert, 4. German Online Research Tagung, Göttingen, 17-18 Mai 2001
- Academics: How do they spend their time? Helen J. Forgasz & Gilah C. Leder, International Education Research Conference
AARE - NZARE, 30 November - 3 December 2003 Auckland. [This paper is quite helpful for seeing details about the experience sampling method]
- An exploration of flow during Internet use Ruth Rettie, Internet Research, 11(2), 103 - 113. This paper is good reading for methodology (beginners in this field).
- Measuring the Flow Experience Among Web Users, Thomas P. Novak, Donna L. Hoffmann, Paper Presented at Interval Research Corporation, July 31, 1997 (consumer studies).
- Measuring the Flow Construct in Online Environments:
A Structural Modeling Approach Thomas P. Novak, Donna L. Hoffmann ( & Yiu-Fal Yung, Working Paper. (consumer studies).
- Hoffman, Novak, and Duhachek (in press, 2002), The Influence
of Goal-Directed and Experiential Activities on Online Flow Experiences, Journal
of Consumer Psychology. A draft is here (december 2001). (consumer studies).
- Engagement modes and flow in using PDAsby Leif Hedman, CUT, Umeå University. Part of the knowmobile project
- Doing Science at the Elbows of Scientists: Issues related to the Scientist Apprentice Camp 97 by Sasha A. Barab
November 20, 1998. CRLT Technical Report No. 3-98
- . Doing Science at the Elbows of Scientists: Issues related to the Scientist Apprentice Camp 97. Barab, S. (1998),
Center for Research on Learning & Technology, Indiana university, working paper. [This paper includes administration of a flow questionnaire]
- Student Engagement in High School Classrooms from the Perspective of Flow Theory by David J. Shernoff, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Barbara Schneider, Elisa Steele Shernoff (abstract only)
Presence, Being there
"Presence" is a concept mostly used in VR research, but some people also are interested in text-based environments like MUDs, portals, and such. Therefore of interest to us.
- A General Theory on Presence, Experimental evaluation of social virtual presence in a decision making task, Stefan Thie, Jacoliene van Wijk, : . Paper presented at Presence in Shared Virtual Environments Workshop, University College London, 10 - 11 June 1998. [html]
- Tu, C. (2002a). The measurement of social presence in an online learning environment. International Journal on E-Learning 1(2), 34-45. (See the presence-research entry on CMC Questionnaire / Social Presence and Privacy Questionnaire (SPPQ)
- *** Being There,
Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Edited by G. Riva, F. Davide & W.A. IJsselsteijn, Amsterdam: IOS Press (2003).
ALL Chapters are downloadable in PDF !! This is a very nice gesture from the authors. (you also can buy the book). See also their book on Ambient Intelligence
(you may need on-line subscription !)
- Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation (PARE) is an on-line journal supported, in part, by the Department of Measurement, Statistics, and Evaluation at the University of Maryland, College Park. Its purpose is to provide education professionals access to refereed articles that can have a positive impact on assessment, research, evaluation, and teaching practice, especially at the local education agency (LEA) level.
- Motivation and Emotion, Kluwer online
Tests, Scales and Items
(see also other sections, e.g. articles)
- Experience Sampling Resource Page. This website provides a starting point for researchers interested in conducting their own computerized experience sampling study.
- A practical guide to experience-sampling procedures. Conner Christensen, T., Feldman Barrett, L., Bliss-Moreau, E., Lebo, K. & Kaschub, C. (2003). Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 53-78
- Experience Sampling Methods: the Theory and Practice of Measuring Behavior In Situ by T. Conner, Boston Colledge (Slides in PDF format). [I like this introduction]
- Missing: I am looking for an event-driven web-based model
- Hsiang Chen, Michael S. Nilan: An Exploration Of Web Users' Internal Experiences: Application Of The Experience Sampling Method To The Web Environment. WebNet 1998
Measures and Analysis
- THE SimAgent TOOLKIT The SimAgent toolkit provides a range of resources for research and teaching related to the development of interacting agents in environments of various degrees and kinds of complexity. It can be run as a pure simulation tool, or installed in a robot with a sufficiently powerful on-board computer, e.g. running linux. It was originally developed to support exploratory research on human-like intelligent agents, but has also been used for student projects developing a variety of interactive games and simulations.
Major indexes and research groups
Research Groups and consortia
Often you will find papers, software, links and other interesting information.
- Affect Control Theory (ACT). This site has papers, a tutorial, software and data
- The Cognition and Affect Project Headed by A. Sloman [ Quote: We are investigating principles for designing or explaining architectures for "whole" intelligent agents, combining many kinds of functionality, whether natural or artificial. ].
- humaine - emotion-research.net This is the portal website of the Network of Excellence HUMAINE, targeted to become a key resource in an exciting research area: emotions and human-machine interaction.
- MIT Affective Computing Quote: " Affective Computing is computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions.
Our research is aimed at giving machines skills of emotional intelligence, including the ability to recognize, model, and understand human emotion, to appropriately communicate emotion, and to respond to it effectively. ..."
- EU Cognitive Systems Integrated Projec (Cognitive Systems for Cognitive Assistants. New project for sept 2004.
- Geneva Emotion Research Group Quote: "The Geneva Emotion Research Group, directed by Prof. Klaus R. Scherer, is part of the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences (FPSE) at the University of Geneva. The members of our group work on theoretical development and empirical research in the affective sciences "
- Intelligent Software Agents and New Media, a research group at the Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ÖFAI). directed by Paolo Petta. Several interesting online publications.
- Adaptive Hypertext & Hypermedia (some research also uses emotions)
- Society for Personality and Social Psychology, not much online, except for a good links section.
Last modified: Fri Nov 12 18:14:37 MET 2004